Water metering requires a battery-powered device only. Needs low power sensors for long-field life.
In energy metering, there is a value in capturing multiple energy parameters like power factor, voltage, current and frequency.
Gas metering requires a battery-powered device only. Needs low power sensors for long-field life. It is essential to minimize meter reading intrusion to customer (as gas meters are located inside homes).
The devices are tamper-proof and are designed to alert the utility distributor in the event of a breach to the device.
The devices are usually procured by utility distributors and supplied to the end user as a service. The smart meter is a combination of the meter and a device module that fits in to the meter.